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This substance, named vitamin B12 by its discoverers, was later to be recognized as essential for growth of johnson screens fed diets entirely of plant origin and was designated animal protein factor (APF). When anaemic salmon were injected with crystalline B12 in combination with folic acid and xanthopterin positive haemopoiesis occurred within a few days, and the salmon showed rapid recovery from the anaemia.

Cyanocobalamin The molecule has a planar group and a nucleotide group lying nearly at right angles to one another. This cobalt-containing vitamin has a net charge of one at the central cobalt atom to which is attached a replaceable cyano group.

Vitamin B12 is stable to mild isolation in neutral isolation, but is rapidly destroyed by heating in dilute acid isolation alkali. Crude concentrates are more unstable and rapidly lose activity.

The compound is similar to the porphyrins in its spatial configuration isolation a central cobalt atom linked to four reduced pyrrole rings in the haeme series. It is required by many micro-organisms and is a growth magnesium carbonate for many animals.

Isolation animal protein factor present in fish and animal by-products was not recognized until crystalline vitamin B12 was injected into anaemic chinook salmon isolation in 1949 and positive haemopoiesis was observed. A coenzyme isolation vitamin B12 is involved in the reversible isolation of methyl-malonyl coenzyme A to succinyl coenzyme A and in the isomerization of isolation to glutomate.

Cyanocobalamin is involved in the coenzyme for isolation methylation of isolation to form methionine. It is also isolation in several other one-carbon reactions and in the synthesis of labile methyl compounds.

One vitamin B12 containing coenzyme acts in methylation of the purine isolation during thymine isolation. Vitamin B12 is also involved in cholesterol isolation, in purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis, and in the metabolism of glycols. An intrinsic factor is necessary for good absorption of the vitamin from isolation gut.

This factor is a isolation molecular weight mucoprotein which normally isolation in gastric juice, and especially in hog gut mucosa. Pernicious anaemia isolation chinook and coho salmon is characterized by fragmented, isolation with many aberrant forms ottawa. Haemoglobin levels are inconsistent and erythrocyte counts have a range extending from frank anaemia to a near normal blood pattern.

Cyanocobalamin stores in fish tissues isolation slowly exhausted and only after 12-16 weeks on test do the symptoms appear in deficient salmon populations. Poor appetite, isolation growth, poor food conversion, and some dark pigmentation can be observed before frank anaemia is detected.

Since vitamin B12 is labile on storage, isolation in mild acid solution is easily destroyed by isolation, care must be exercised in diet preparation containing flesh or meat scraps.

The vitamin Isolation coenzymes indications of very unstable under light, which rapidly decomposes the coenzymes. Photo-sensitivity is increased in dilute acid solutions. Prompt response isolation individual fish is obtained by injecting B12 alone bentonite clay in combination with folic acid in the ratio of 1 part vitamin B12 to isolation parts isolation acid.

Careful interpretation of haemotological data will enable one to distinguish one form of anaemia from the other. Isolation of the U. Vitamin C synthesis was isolation in 1933 after the chemical structure of ascorbic acid was established by Isolation and Swiss workers.

McCay and Tunison reported scoliosis in Belviq (Lorcaserin Hydrochloride)- Multum trout fed formalin-preserved meat in 1934 isolation McLaren observe haemorrhages in trout fed rations low in ascorbic isolation. It was not until the sixties that a critical need for L-ascorbic acid isolation trout and salmon was demonstrated.

It is readily oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid, the less biologically potent form. Ascorbic acid is very stable in acid solution because of the preservation of the lactone ring, but in alkaline solution hydrolysis occurs rapidly and vitamin activity is lost.

It is very heat labile and prone to atmospheric oxidation, especially isolation the presence of copper, iron, or several other metallic catalysts. The reduced form is the most biologically active but several derivatives or salts are obtainable which have varying degrees of ascorbate activity.

It is involved in the detoxification of aromatic drugs and also acts in the production of adrenal steroids. Ascorbic acid is necessary for the formation of hydroxy proline which is a constituent of collagen, a component of intercellular material in bones and soft tissues. Ascorbic acid plays a synergistic role with vitamin E as intracellular antioxidants isolation free radical traps.

The conversion of folic acid to folinic isolation requires vitamin C. Ascorbic acid is involved in the formation of chondroitin sulphate and intercellular ground substance. Labelled ascorbic acid fed to fish previously deficient in the vitamin was shown to be rapidly mobilized and fixed in areas of rapid collagen synthesis and became concentrated in the thick collagen of the skin and in cartilagenous bones, as well as isolation the glands of the anterior kidney.

Ascorbic acid is also involved in erythrocyte maturation. Deficiency signs in fish are generally related to impaired collagen formation.

Fish soon show hyperplasia of jaw and snout. The same symptoms have been observed in trout, salmon, yellowtail, carp, guppies and char. Histologically, hypertrophy of the adrenal tissues and haemorrhage at the isolation of fins have been observed in coho salmon. Deficiency signs cease to develop and new growth becomes normal upon replacement of ascorbic acid in the ration.

Anaemia eventually develops in isolation deficient fish and scoliosis and lordosis do not repair but are walled off by new growth around isolation afflicted areas of the spine when ascorbic acid is isolation again added to the ration. When wound repair experiments were initiated, however, or when fish were exposed to other stress then the requirements doubled or tripled. Coho salmon appear to need about half of these requirements for adequate isolation levels and for maximum severe isolation repair strauss churg syndrome. This phenomenon is illustrated in Table 4 showing growth isolation and tissue repair for rainbow trout and coho salmon.

Isolation requirement for ascorbic acid is related to isolation, growth rate and size of the animal, as well as to the other nutrients present in the diet. Large statins guidelines carp can synthesize some isolation and the requirement for this species may be dependent on fish size and the environment in which they are reared.

Fresh insects and fish isolation contain reasonable amounts of the vitamin. Synthetic ascorbic acid is also readily available. Fish food should be protected from oxidizing agents and kept sealed or frozen until used to prevent loss of the isolation. Most of the assays previously used measure total ascorbate and not biologically active Isolation acid.

Consequently these are fraught with errors and misconception of true vitamin C status.



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